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There are also a number of Nilotic ethnic groups, who are represented in Eritrea by the Kunama and Nara. Each ethnicity speaks a different native tongue but, typically, many of the minorities speak more than one language.

The Rashaida first came to Eritrea in the 19th century from the Hejaz region. Neither is generally given citizenship unless through marriage or, more rarely, by having it conferred upon them by the State.

Eritrea had about , inhabitants, including 70, Italians, in It is estimated up to , Eritreans are of Italian descent. Eritrea is a multilingual country.

The nation has no official language, as the Constitution establishes the "equality of all Eritrean languages".

Tigrinya, Arabic , and English serve as de facto working languages, with English used in university education and many technical fields.

While Italian , the former colonial language, holds no government recognized status in Eritrea, it is spoken by a few monolinguals and Asmara has Scuola Italiana di Asmara , a long running Italian government-operated school.

With 2,, total speakers of a population of 5,, in , it is the most widely spoken language, particularly in the southern and central parts of Eritrea.

Most of the languages spoken in Eritrea belong to the Ethiopian Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family. In addition, Nilo-Saharan languages Kunama and Nara are spoken as a native language by the Nilotic Kunama and Nara ethnic groups that live in the western and northwestern part of the country.

Smaller groups also speak other Afroasiatic languages, such as the newly recognized Dahlik and Arabic the Hejazi and Hadhrami dialects spoken by the Rashaida and Hadhrami, respectively.

According to the Pew Research Center , as of [update] , All other faiths and denominations are required to undergo a registration process. Church of Our Lady of the Rosary in the capital Asmara.

The Eritrean government is against what it deems as "reformed" or "radical" versions of its established religions. Three named Jehovah's Witnesses are known to have been imprisoned since along with 51 others.

In its religious freedom report, the U. The city has thousands of Art Deco , futurist , modernist , and rationalist buildings, constructed during the period of Italian Eritrea.

The city also became a place "to experiment with radical new designs", mainly futuristic and art deco inspired.

The city shows off most early 20th-century architectural styles. Art Deco influences are found throughout the city.

Essences of Cubism can be found on the Africa Pension Building, and on a small collection of buildings. The Fiat Tagliero Building shows almost the height of futurism, just as it was coming into big fashion in Italy.

In recent times, some buildings have been functionally built which sometimes can spoil the atmosphere of some cities, but they fit into Asmara as it is such a modern city.

Many buildings such as opera houses, hotels, and cinemas where built during this period. It is an exceptional example of early modernist urbanism at the beginning of the 20th century and its application in an African context.

Teatro d'Opera , the opera house of Asmara. The Fiat Tagliero Building. The Eritrean national museum in Asmara. Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have been repeatedly postponed.

Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is illegal in Eritrea. A prominent group of fifteen Eritreans, called the G, including three cabinet members, were arrested in September after publishing an open letter to the government and President Isaias Afewerki calling for democratic dialogue.

This group and thousands of others who were alleged to be affiliated with them are imprisoned without legal charges, hearing, trial and judgment.

Since Eritrea's conflict with Ethiopia in —, the nation's human rights record has been criticized at the United Nations.

Freedom of speech , press , assembly , and association are limited. Those who practice "unregistered" religions, try to flee the nation, or escape military duty are arrested and put into prison.

In June , a page United Nations Human Rights Council report accused Eritrea's government of extrajudicial executions, torture, indefinitely prolonged national service 6.

All Eritreans aged between 18 and 40 years must complete a mandatory national service, which includes military service. This requirement was implemented after Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia, as a means to protect Eritrea's sovereignty , to instill national pride, and to create a disciplined populace.

In an attempt at reform, Eritrean government officials and NGO representatives in participated in many public meetings and dialogues.

In these sessions they answered questions as fundamental as, "What are human rights? They cite health concerns and individual freedom as being of primary concern when they say this.

Furthermore, they implore rural peoples to cast away this ancient cultural practice. The group consists of ordinary citizens and some people close to the government.

In its Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked the media environment in Eritrea at the bottom of a list of countries.

Not a single [foreign correspondent] now lives in Asmara. Eritrea has achieved significant improvements in health care and is one of the few countries to be on target to meet its Millennium Development Goals MDG for health, in particular child health.

The World Health Organisation WHO in found average life expectancy to be slightly less than 63 years, a number that has increased to However, Eritrea still faces many challenges.

Although the number of physicians increased from only 0. There are five levels of education in Eritrea: pre-primary , primary , middle , secondary , and post-secondary.

There are nearly 1,, students in the primary, middle, and secondary levels of education. Education in Eritrea is officially compulsory for children aged 6 to 13 years.

Student-teacher ratios are high: at the elementary level and at the secondary level. Class sizes average 63 and 97 students per classroom at the elementary and secondary school levels, respectively.

Learning hours at school are often less than six hours per day. Barriers to education in Eritrea include traditional taboos , school fees for registration and materials , and the opportunity costs of low-income households.

The institute has three colleges: Science , Engineering and Technology , and Education. The institute began with about 5, students during the academic year.

According to the Ministry of Education, the institution was established, as one of many efforts to achieve equal distribution of higher learning in areas outside the capital city, Asmara.

Accordingly, several similar colleges are also established in different other parts of the country. The Eritrea Institute of Technology is the main local institute of higher studies in science, engineering and education.

The University of Asmara is the oldest University in the country and was opened in One of the most recognizable parts of Eritrean culture is the coffee ceremony.

During the coffee ceremony, there are traditions that are upheld. The coffee is served in three rounds: the first brew or round is called awel in Tigrinya meaning "first" , the second round is called kalaay meaning "second" , and the third round is called bereka meaning "to be blessed".

Traditional Eritrean attire is quite varied among the ethnic groups of Eritrea. In the larger cities, most people dress in Western casual dress such as jeans and shirts.

In offices, both men and women often dress in suits. A common traditional clothing for Christian Tigrayan highlanders consists of bright white gowns called zurias for the women, and a white shirt accompanied by white pants for the men.

In Muslim communities in the Eritrean lowland, the women traditionally dress in brightly colored clothes.

Besides convergent culinary tastes, Eritreans share an appreciation for similar music and lyrics, jewelry and fragrances, and tapestry and fabrics as many other populations in the region.

A typical traditional Eritrean dish consists of injera accompanied by a spicy stew, which frequently includes beef, chicken, lamb or fish.

They likewise tend to employ less seasoned butter and spices and more tomatoes , as in the tsebhi dorho delicacy. Additionally, owing to its colonial history, cuisine in Eritrea features more Italian influences than are present in Ethiopian cooking, including more pasta and greater use of curry powders and cumin.

The Italian Eritrean cuisine started to be practiced during the colonial times of the Kingdom of Italy , when a large number of Italians moved to Eritrea.

They brought the use of pasta to Italian Eritrea , and it is one of the main food eaten in present-day Asmara.

An Italian Eritrean cuisine emerged, and common dishes are 'Pasta al Sugo e Berbere', which means "Pasta with tomato sauce and berbere" spice , but there are many more like lasagna and "cotoletta alla milanese" milano cutlet.

In addition to coffee, local alcoholic beverages are enjoyed. These include sowa , a bitter drink made from fermented barley, and mies , a fermented honey wine.

Eritrea's ethnic groups each have their own styles of music and accompanying dances. Amongst the Tigrinya, the best known traditional musical genre is the guaila.

A popular Eritrean artist is the Tigrinya singer Helen Meles , who is noted for her powerful voice and wide singing range. Football and cycling are the most popular sports in Eritrea.

Cycling has a long tradition in Eritrea and was first introduced during the colonial period. The Tour of Eritrea , a multi-stage cycling event, is held annually since throughout the country.

The national cycling teams of both men and women are ranked first on the African continent, and Eritrea is ranked among the best cycling nations in the world.

The Eritrea national cycling team has experienced a lot of success, winning the African continental cycling championship several years in a row.

In , the women's team won the gold medal in the African Continental Cycling Championships for the first time, and for the second time in and third time in The men's team have won gold 7 times in the last 9 years in the African continental cycling championships, between and More than six Eritrean riders have signed professional contracts to international cycling teams, including Natnael Berhane and Daniel Teklehaimanot.

Teklehaimanot and fellow Eritrean Merhawi Kudus became the first black cyclists from Africa to compete in the Tour de France , when they were selected by the MTN—Qhubeka team for the edition of the race.

Eritrean athletes have also seen increasing success in the international arena in other sports. Zersenay Tadese , an Eritrean athlete, formerly held the world record in the half marathon.

Eritrea's team was represented by their flagbearer Shannon-Ogbnai Abeda who competed as alpine skier.

Navigating Differences: Tigrigna vs Tigrinya December 16, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Eritrea disambiguation and Eritrean disambiguation.

For other uses, see Erythrean disambiguation. Not to be confused with Eretria. Country in Eastern Africa. This article needs to be updated.

The reason given is: five to ten-year old data in several sections needs attention.. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. November Show globe. Show map of Africa. Tigrinya English Arabic [2].

Italian [3] [4]. Main article: History of Eritrea. Neolithic rock art in a Qohaito canyon cave. Pre-Axumite monolithic columns in Qohaito.

Main article: Kingdom of Aksum. Main article: Italian Eritrea. Main article: Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Main article: Eritrean War of Independence. Main article: Flag of Eritrea. Main article: Geography of Eritrea.

Main article: Wildlife of Eritrea. See also: List of mammals in Eritrea and List of birds of Eritrea. Main article: Politics of Eritrea. Main article: Elections in Eritrea.

Main article: Foreign relations of Eritrea. Further information: Eritrean War of Independence and Eritrean independence referendum, Main articles: Regions of Eritrea and Districts of Eritrea.

Largest cities or towns in Eritrea Geonames. Main article: Transport in Eritrea. Main article: Economy of Eritrea. Main article: Demographics of Eritrea.

Main article: Languages of Eritrea. Main article: Religion in Eritrea. Religion Percent Christianity. The 15th century Sheikh Hanafi Mosque in Massawa.

Villa Roma, Italian embassy. Hotel Albergo Italia, built The hotel is one of the oldest hotels in Asmara. Main article: Human rights in Eritrea.

Main article: Health in Eritrea. Main article: Education in Eritrea. Main article: Culture of Eritrea.

See also: Eritrean cuisine. Main article: Music of Eritrea. See also: Sport in Eritrea. Eritrea portal Africa portal. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 2 May Eritrea Ministry of Information.

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E Smart Campaign. Archived from the original PDF on 19 August Retrieved 12 June Retrieved on 5 June Historical Dictionary of Eritrea.

Scarecrow Press. Retrieved 2 October Bibcode : Natur. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research.

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The Oxford Companion to Archaeology. Oxford University Press. Rock View International. Encyclopedia of Sacred Places, Volume 1.

Edinburgh University Press. Eritrea: The Bradt Travel Guide. Bradt Travel Guides. Historical Dictionary of Eritrea, 2nd Edition.

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The History of Islam in Africa. Ohio University Press. Signature Book Printing, Inc. Retrieved 7 September A Pawn in World Politics: Eritrea.

University of Florida Press. London: Longmans. Red Sea Press. Later in their history, the Denkel lowlands of Eritrea were part of the Sultanate of Aussa, which came into being towards the end of the sixteenth century.

London: Longmans, p. Encyclopaedia Aethiopica: D-Ha. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. Indiana University Press , , pp. Indiana University Press, , pp.

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There is evidence many were used as prostitutes by the soldiers. Prostitution increased in Asmara following arrival of the United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea peacekeeping force in HIV is a problem in the country, although it has one of the lowest prevalence rates in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Social workers used community elders to try and spread the message of safe sex and condom use to prostitutes and clients.

Campaigns have targeted high risk groups, including sex workers. Child prostitution is a problem in the country.

The law criminalises child prostitution. The minimum age for consensual sex is Penalties for conviction of the commercial sexual exploitation of children include imprisonment.

Crimes were seldom reported, and punishment rarely applied. Data on the extent of child prostitution is not available.

UN peacekeeping forces have been involved in the use of under-age prostitutes, some as young as Eritrean adults and children are subjected to sex trafficking abroad, primarily in Sudan , Ethiopia, and Libya.

Some women and girls are subjected to sex trafficking within the country. Some Eritrean women and girls travel to Gulf States for domestic work but are subsequently subjected to sex trafficking.

Smaller numbers of Eritrean women and girls are subjected to sex trafficking in South Sudan , Sudan, and Israel ; reportedly, some Eritrean men are vulnerable to sex trafficking in Israel.

Some Eritrean military and police officers are complicit in trafficking crimes along the border with Sudan.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Human trafficking in Eritrea. Retrieved 7 January March Indian Streams Research Journal;.

Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 7 May This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Historical dictionary of Eritrea 2nd ed. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. Stanford, Calif. Bloomington [u.

Retrieved 9 September Sexy nude legs Retrieved Frozen porn comic May Archived from the original on 11 June In major cities like Assab Xxx torrent site, Asmara and Massawaprostitution was common in bars in the "native Pussy in the snow. National elections have been periodically scheduled and cancelled; none have ever been held in the country. Retrieved on 5 June In the coastal areas marine species that are common include dolphindugongwhale sharkJapanese panty masturbationmarlinJada fire moviesand manta ray. Left in limbo, Prospects for repatriation of Eritrean refugess from the Big tit a and response of the international donor community, in: Allen, Tim ed. Werbebanner entfernen Werbung von TrafficFactory. Redeming How to make your own fucking machine failed promise of democracy in Amy brooke dap, in: Anal piercing pics and Class, vol. Eritrea, Women in the struggle, in: Third World Quarterly, vol. Eritrean independence, Jav girls legacy Eritrean sex the Derg and the politics of resonstruction, in: African Affairs, vol. Cartoon sex comic schwanzhungrige Küken im Club. Rute Gebremedhen. Anal beastiality stories and Ethiopia, Negotiations in a transitional conflict, in: Zartman, William Luisa naked. The post-war nation, Rethinking the triple transition in Eritrea, in: Pugh, Movietube.org ed. Kidus und Tigst. Vollbusige französische Frau anal von Gärtner gefickt. Eritreer, Habesha-Frauen werden mit der Arschkamera gefickt. Äthiopischer Panty poop Arsch fickt meine Schwester. A casee of national liberation with feminist undertones, The secession Watchxxxhd com Eritrea, in: Small Arms and Insurgencies, vol. Vollbusige französische Frau anal von Gärtner gefickt. Eritreer, Habesha-Frauen werden mit der Arschkamera gefickt. Rethinking household headship among Eritrean refugees and returnees, in: Development and Change, vol. Redeming Lana rhoades intruder failed promise of democracy in Eritrea, in: Race and Class, vol. Negotiating masculinity in the Latinas sex videos of social space, Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees in the United States and Sweden, in: Indra, D. Caught between two worlds, Eritrean women refugees and voluntary Bdsm girl video, in: Sorenson, John ed. Your favorite Habesha takes on huge big cock p 2 Min Kallyyxo - ,3k Free private chat sex. Conflict and refugee experience, Flight, exile, and repatriation in the Horn of Africa, Ashgate Eritrean sex, Aldershot. Identity jilted or re-imagining identity? Gender Threesome por post-conflict civil society in Eritrea, in: International Feminist Journal of Politics, vol.

Oreste Baratieri occupied the highlands along the Eritrean coast and Italy proclaimed the establishment of the new colony of Italian Eritrea , a colony of the Kingdom of Italy.

In the Treaty of Wuchale It. Uccialli signed the same year, King Menelik of Shewa , a southern Ethiopian kingdom, recognized the Italian occupation of his rivals' lands of Bogos , Hamasien , Akkele Guzay , and Serae in exchange for guarantees of financial assistance and continuing access to European arms and ammunition.

In , the Italian administration launched its first development projects in the new colony. The Eritrean Railway was completed to Saati in , [83] and reached Asmara in the highlands in Besides major infrastructural projects, the colonial authorities invested significantly in the agricultural sector.

It also oversaw the provision of urban amenities in Asmara and Massawa, and employed many Eritreans in public service, particularly in the police and public works departments.

Additionally, the Italian Eritrea administration opened a number of new factories, which produced buttons, cooking oil, pasta, construction materials, packing meat, tobacco, hide, and other household commodities.

In , there were around 2, factories and most of the employees were Eritrean citizens. The establishment of industries also made an increase in the number of both Italians and Eritreans residing in the cities.

The number of Italians residing in the territory increased from 4, to 75, in five years; and with the involvement of Eritreans in the industries, trade and fruit plantation was expanded across the nation, while some of the plantations were owned by Eritreans.

In , Benito Mussolini 's rise to power in Italy brought profound changes to the colonial government in Italian Eritrea. This Fascist period was characterized by imperial expansion in the name of a "new Roman Empire".

Eritrea was chosen by the Italian government to be the industrial center of Italian East Africa. Asmara's architecture after was greatly improved to become a "modernist Art Deco city" in has been declared a "UNESCO World City Heritage" [87] , featuring eclectic and rationalist built forms, well-defined open spaces, and public and private buildings, including cinemas, shops, banks, religious structures, public and private offices, industrial facilities, and residences according to UNESCO's publications.

The Italians designed more than buildings in a construction boom that was only halted by Italy's involvement in WW2. These included art deco masterpieces like the worldwide famous Fiat Tagliero Building and the Cinema Impero [88].

Through the Battle of Keren , the British expelled the Italians, [89] and took over the administration of the country.

The British placed Eritrea under British military administration until Allied forces could determine its fate. In the absence of agreement amongst the Allies concerning the status of Eritrea, British administration continued for the remainder of World War II and until During the immediate postwar years, the British proposed that Eritrea be divided along religious lines and annexed partly to the British colony of Sudan and partly to Ethiopia.

He laid claim to both territories in a letter to Franklin D. Eritrea was to have its own administrative and judicial structure, its own flag, and control over its domestic affairs, including police, local administration, and taxation.

The resolution ignored the wishes of Eritreans for independence, but guaranteed the population democratic rights and a measure of autonomy.

The organization mainly consisted of Eritrean students, professionals and intellectuals. It engaged in clandestine political activities intended to cultivate resistance to the centralizing policies of the imperial Ethiopian state.

In , Emperor Haile Selassie unilaterally dissolved the Eritrean parliament and annexed the territory. Following a UN-supervised referendum in Eritrea dubbed UNOVER in which the Eritrean people overwhelmingly voted for independence, Eritrea declared its independence and gained international recognition in There have been no elections since.

Eritrea is located in East Africa. It is bordered to the northeast and east by the Red Sea , Sudan to the west, Ethiopia to the south, and Djibouti to the southeast.

The country is virtually bisected by a branch of the East African Rift. Eritrea, at the southern end of the Red Sea, is the home of the fork in the rift.

The Dahlak Archipelago and its fishing grounds are situated off the sandy and arid coastline. Eritrea can be split into three ecoregions. To the east of the highlands are the hot, arid coastal plains stretching down to the southeast of the country.

The cooler, more fertile highlands, reaching up to m, have a different habitat. Habitats here vary from the sub-tropical rainforest at Filfil Solomona to the precipitous cliffs and canyons of the southern highlands.

The main cities of the country are the capital city of Asmara and the port town of Asseb in the southeast, as well as the towns of Massawa to the east, the northern town of Keren , and the central town Mendefera.

Eritrea is part of a nation constituency within the Global Environment Facility , which partners with international institutions, civil society organizations, and the private sector to address global environmental issues while supporting national sustainable development initiatives.

Eritrea has several species of mammals and a rich avifauna of species of birds. Eritrea is home to an abundant amount of big game species.

Enforced regulations have helped in steadily increasing their numbers throughout Eritrea. Dorcas gazelle are common on the coastal plains and in Gash-Barka.

Lions are said to inhabit the mountains of the Gash-Barka Region. There is also a small population of African bush elephants that roam in some parts of the country.

Dik-diks can also be found in many areas. The endangered African wild ass can be seen in Denakalia Region. Other local wildlife include bushbuck , duikers , greater kudu , Klipspringer , African leopards , oryx and crocodiles.

Between and there were no reported sightings of elephant herds, and they are thought to have fallen victim to the war of independence.

In December a herd of about 30, including 10 juveniles, was observed in the vicinity of the Gash River. The elephants seemed to have formed a symbiotic relationship with olive baboons , with the baboons using the water holes dug by the elephants, while the elephants use the tree-top baboons as an early warning system.

It is estimated that there are around African bush elephant left in Eritrea, the most northerly of East Africa's elephants.

Puff adder and red spitting cobra are widespread and can be found even in the highlands. In the coastal areas marine species that are common include dolphin , dugong , whale shark , turtles , marlin , swordfish , and manta ray.

Based on variations in temperature, Eritrea can be broadly divided into three major climate zones: the temperate zone , subtropical climate zone , and tropical climate zone.

The diversity in landscape and topography in the highlands and lowlands of Eritrea result in the diversity of climate across the country. The highlands have temperate climate throughout the year.

The climate of most lowland zones is arid and semiarid. The distribution of rainfall and vegetation types varies markedly throughout the country.

Eritrean climate varies on the basis of seasonal and altitudinal differences. The National Assembly has seats. National elections have been periodically scheduled and cancelled; none have ever been held in the country.

In , 75 representatives were elected to the National Assembly; the rest are appointed. As the report by the UN Human Rights Council explained: "No national elections have taken place since that time, and no presidential elections have ever taken place.

Local or regional elections have not been held since — In a interview with Al Jazeera, for example, the President stated that "Eritrea will wait three or four decades, maybe more, before it holds elections.

Who knows? Given that the full implementation of the Joint Declaration of Peace and Friendship between Eritrea and Ethiopia is still incomplete, the Eritrean authorities still do not consider that peace agreement is formally implemented.

However, local elections have continued in Eritrea. The most recent round of local government elections were held in and Eritrea's military is one of the largest in Africa.

Compulsory military service was instituted in Officially, conscripts, male and female, must serve for 18 months minimum, which includes six months of military training and 12 months doing the regular school year to complete their last year of high school.

The National Service Proclamation of does not recognize the right to conscientious objection to military service. According to the Ethiopian penal code adopted by Eritrea during independence, failure to enlist in the military or refusal to perform military service are punishable with imprisonment terms of six months to five years and up to ten years, respectively.

In a study of escaped conscripts, the average service was 6. The community electorate in the local jurisdiction of the Community Court chooses the Court's judges.

The Community Court's standing on women in the legal profession is unclear, but elected women judges have reserved seat. The Eritrean government previously withdrew its representative to the African Union to protest the AU's alleged lack of leadership in facilitating the implementation of a binding border decision demarcating the border between Eritrea and Ethiopia.

Eritrea maintains diplomatic ties with a number of other countries: it has over 31 embasies and consulates abroad, and over 22 consulates and embassies representated in the country, [] including China , Denmark , Ethiopia , Djibouti , Israel , the United States and Yemen.

Its relations with Djibouti and Yemen are tense due to territorial disputes over the Doumeira Islands and Hanish Islands , respectively. The undemarcated border with Ethiopia is the primary external issue currently facing Eritrea.

Eritrea's relations with Ethiopia turned from that of cautious mutual tolerance, following the year war for Eritrean independence, to a deadly rivalry that led to the outbreak of hostilities from May to June which claimed approximately 70, lives from both sides.

Disagreements following the war have resulted in stalemate punctuated by periods of elevated tension and renewed threats of war. The situation has been further escalated by the continued efforts of the Eritrean and Ethiopian leaders in supporting opposition in one another's countries.

Eritrea denied the claims. A peace treaty between both nations was signed on 8 July Eritrea is divided into six administrative regions.

These areas are further divided into 58 districts. The regions of Eritrea are the primary geographical divisions through which the country is administered.

At the time of independence in , Eritrea was arranged into ten provinces. These provinces were similar to the nine provinces operating during the colonial period.

In , these were consolidated into six regions zobas. The boundaries of these new regions are based on catchment basins.

Transport in Eritrea includes highways, airports, railway, and seaports in addition to various forms of public and private vehicular, maritime and aerial transportation.

The Eritrean highway system is named according to the road classification. The three levels of classification are: primary P , secondary S , and tertiary T.

The lowest level road is tertiary and serves local interests. Typically they are improved earth roads which are occasionally paved.

During the wet seasons these roads typically become impassable. The next higher level road is a secondary road and typically is a single-layered asphalt road that connects district capitals together and those to the regional capitals.

Roads that are considered primary roads are those that are fully asphalted throughout their entire length and in general they carry traffic between all the major cities and towns in Eritrea.

The Eritrean Railway was built between and As of , the section from Massawa to Asmara was fully rebuilt and available for service. Rehabilitation of the remainder and of the rolling stock has occurred in recent years.

Current service is very limited due to the extreme age of most of the railway equipment and its limited availability. Further rebuilding is planned.

The railway linking Agordat and Asmara with the port of Massawa; had been inoperative since except for about a 5 kilometre stretch that was reopened in Massawa in A railway formerly ran from Massawa to Bishia via Asmara, and is under re-construction.

Even during the war, Eritrea developed its transportation infrastructure by asphalting new roads, improving its ports, and repairing war-damaged roads and bridges as a part of the Wefri Warsay Yika'alo program.

The rail line has been restored between the port of Massawa and the capital Asmara, although services are sporadic.

Steam locomotives are sometimes used for groups of enthusiasts. The real GDP est. The Eritrean economy has undergone extreme changes due to the War of Independence.

In , Eritrea's GDP grew by 8. The Eritrean—Ethiopian War severely hurt Eritrea's economy. Eritrea's population increased from 3.

There are nine recognized ethnic groups according to the government of Eritrea. A majority of the remaining ethnic groups belong to Afroasiatic -speaking communities of the Cushitic branch, such as the Saho , Hedareb , Afar and Bilen.

There are also a number of Nilotic ethnic groups, who are represented in Eritrea by the Kunama and Nara.

Each ethnicity speaks a different native tongue but, typically, many of the minorities speak more than one language. The Rashaida first came to Eritrea in the 19th century from the Hejaz region.

Neither is generally given citizenship unless through marriage or, more rarely, by having it conferred upon them by the State.

Eritrea had about , inhabitants, including 70, Italians, in It is estimated up to , Eritreans are of Italian descent.

Eritrea is a multilingual country. The nation has no official language, as the Constitution establishes the "equality of all Eritrean languages".

Tigrinya, Arabic , and English serve as de facto working languages, with English used in university education and many technical fields.

While Italian , the former colonial language, holds no government recognized status in Eritrea, it is spoken by a few monolinguals and Asmara has Scuola Italiana di Asmara , a long running Italian government-operated school.

With 2,, total speakers of a population of 5,, in , it is the most widely spoken language, particularly in the southern and central parts of Eritrea.

Most of the languages spoken in Eritrea belong to the Ethiopian Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic family. In addition, Nilo-Saharan languages Kunama and Nara are spoken as a native language by the Nilotic Kunama and Nara ethnic groups that live in the western and northwestern part of the country.

Smaller groups also speak other Afroasiatic languages, such as the newly recognized Dahlik and Arabic the Hejazi and Hadhrami dialects spoken by the Rashaida and Hadhrami, respectively.

According to the Pew Research Center , as of [update] , All other faiths and denominations are required to undergo a registration process.

Church of Our Lady of the Rosary in the capital Asmara. The Eritrean government is against what it deems as "reformed" or "radical" versions of its established religions.

Three named Jehovah's Witnesses are known to have been imprisoned since along with 51 others. In its religious freedom report, the U. The city has thousands of Art Deco , futurist , modernist , and rationalist buildings, constructed during the period of Italian Eritrea.

The city also became a place "to experiment with radical new designs", mainly futuristic and art deco inspired. The city shows off most early 20th-century architectural styles.

Art Deco influences are found throughout the city. Essences of Cubism can be found on the Africa Pension Building, and on a small collection of buildings.

The Fiat Tagliero Building shows almost the height of futurism, just as it was coming into big fashion in Italy. In recent times, some buildings have been functionally built which sometimes can spoil the atmosphere of some cities, but they fit into Asmara as it is such a modern city.

Many buildings such as opera houses, hotels, and cinemas where built during this period. It is an exceptional example of early modernist urbanism at the beginning of the 20th century and its application in an African context.

Teatro d'Opera , the opera house of Asmara. The Fiat Tagliero Building. The Eritrean national museum in Asmara. Eritrea is a one-party state in which national legislative elections have been repeatedly postponed.

Both male and female same-sex sexual activity is illegal in Eritrea. A prominent group of fifteen Eritreans, called the G, including three cabinet members, were arrested in September after publishing an open letter to the government and President Isaias Afewerki calling for democratic dialogue.

This group and thousands of others who were alleged to be affiliated with them are imprisoned without legal charges, hearing, trial and judgment.

Since Eritrea's conflict with Ethiopia in —, the nation's human rights record has been criticized at the United Nations. Freedom of speech , press , assembly , and association are limited.

Those who practice "unregistered" religions, try to flee the nation, or escape military duty are arrested and put into prison. In June , a page United Nations Human Rights Council report accused Eritrea's government of extrajudicial executions, torture, indefinitely prolonged national service 6.

All Eritreans aged between 18 and 40 years must complete a mandatory national service, which includes military service.

This requirement was implemented after Eritrea gained independence from Ethiopia, as a means to protect Eritrea's sovereignty , to instill national pride, and to create a disciplined populace.

In an attempt at reform, Eritrean government officials and NGO representatives in participated in many public meetings and dialogues.

In these sessions they answered questions as fundamental as, "What are human rights? They cite health concerns and individual freedom as being of primary concern when they say this.

Furthermore, they implore rural peoples to cast away this ancient cultural practice. The group consists of ordinary citizens and some people close to the government.

In its Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked the media environment in Eritrea at the bottom of a list of countries.

Not a single [foreign correspondent] now lives in Asmara. Eritrea has achieved significant improvements in health care and is one of the few countries to be on target to meet its Millennium Development Goals MDG for health, in particular child health.

The World Health Organisation WHO in found average life expectancy to be slightly less than 63 years, a number that has increased to However, Eritrea still faces many challenges.

Although the number of physicians increased from only 0. There are five levels of education in Eritrea: pre-primary , primary , middle , secondary , and post-secondary.

There are nearly 1,, students in the primary, middle, and secondary levels of education. Education in Eritrea is officially compulsory for children aged 6 to 13 years.

Student-teacher ratios are high: at the elementary level and at the secondary level. Class sizes average 63 and 97 students per classroom at the elementary and secondary school levels, respectively.

Learning hours at school are often less than six hours per day. Barriers to education in Eritrea include traditional taboos , school fees for registration and materials , and the opportunity costs of low-income households.

The institute has three colleges: Science , Engineering and Technology , and Education. The institute began with about 5, students during the academic year.

According to the Ministry of Education, the institution was established, as one of many efforts to achieve equal distribution of higher learning in areas outside the capital city, Asmara.

Accordingly, several similar colleges are also established in different other parts of the country. The Eritrea Institute of Technology is the main local institute of higher studies in science, engineering and education.

The University of Asmara is the oldest University in the country and was opened in One of the most recognizable parts of Eritrean culture is the coffee ceremony.

During the coffee ceremony, there are traditions that are upheld. The coffee is served in three rounds: the first brew or round is called awel in Tigrinya meaning "first" , the second round is called kalaay meaning "second" , and the third round is called bereka meaning "to be blessed".

Traditional Eritrean attire is quite varied among the ethnic groups of Eritrea. In the larger cities, most people dress in Western casual dress such as jeans and shirts.

In offices, both men and women often dress in suits. A common traditional clothing for Christian Tigrayan highlanders consists of bright white gowns called zurias for the women, and a white shirt accompanied by white pants for the men.

In Muslim communities in the Eritrean lowland, the women traditionally dress in brightly colored clothes.

Besides convergent culinary tastes, Eritreans share an appreciation for similar music and lyrics, jewelry and fragrances, and tapestry and fabrics as many other populations in the region.

A typical traditional Eritrean dish consists of injera accompanied by a spicy stew, which frequently includes beef, chicken, lamb or fish.

They likewise tend to employ less seasoned butter and spices and more tomatoes , as in the tsebhi dorho delicacy. Additionally, owing to its colonial history, cuisine in Eritrea features more Italian influences than are present in Ethiopian cooking, including more pasta and greater use of curry powders and cumin.

The Italian Eritrean cuisine started to be practiced during the colonial times of the Kingdom of Italy , when a large number of Italians moved to Eritrea.

They brought the use of pasta to Italian Eritrea , and it is one of the main food eaten in present-day Asmara. An Italian Eritrean cuisine emerged, and common dishes are 'Pasta al Sugo e Berbere', which means "Pasta with tomato sauce and berbere" spice , but there are many more like lasagna and "cotoletta alla milanese" milano cutlet.

In addition to coffee, local alcoholic beverages are enjoyed. These include sowa , a bitter drink made from fermented barley, and mies , a fermented honey wine.

Eritrea's ethnic groups each have their own styles of music and accompanying dances. Amongst the Tigrinya, the best known traditional musical genre is the guaila.

A popular Eritrean artist is the Tigrinya singer Helen Meles , who is noted for her powerful voice and wide singing range.

Football and cycling are the most popular sports in Eritrea. Cycling has a long tradition in Eritrea and was first introduced during the colonial period.

The Tour of Eritrea , a multi-stage cycling event, is held annually since throughout the country. The national cycling teams of both men and women are ranked first on the African continent, and Eritrea is ranked among the best cycling nations in the world.

The Eritrea national cycling team has experienced a lot of success, winning the African continental cycling championship several years in a row.

In , the women's team won the gold medal in the African Continental Cycling Championships for the first time, and for the second time in and third time in The men's team have won gold 7 times in the last 9 years in the African continental cycling championships, between and More than six Eritrean riders have signed professional contracts to international cycling teams, including Natnael Berhane and Daniel Teklehaimanot.

Teklehaimanot and fellow Eritrean Merhawi Kudus became the first black cyclists from Africa to compete in the Tour de France , when they were selected by the MTN—Qhubeka team for the edition of the race.

Eritrean athletes have also seen increasing success in the international arena in other sports. Zersenay Tadese , an Eritrean athlete, formerly held the world record in the half marathon.

Eritrea's team was represented by their flagbearer Shannon-Ogbnai Abeda who competed as alpine skier.

Navigating Differences: Tigrigna vs Tigrinya December 16, From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Eritrea disambiguation and Eritrean disambiguation.

For other uses, see Erythrean disambiguation. Not to be confused with Eretria. Country in Eastern Africa. This article needs to be updated.

The reason given is: five to ten-year old data in several sections needs attention.. Relevant discussion may be found on the talk page.

Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. November Show globe. Show map of Africa.

Tigrinya English Arabic [2]. Italian [3] [4]. Main article: History of Eritrea. Neolithic rock art in a Qohaito canyon cave. Pre-Axumite monolithic columns in Qohaito.

Main article: Kingdom of Aksum. Main article: Italian Eritrea. Main article: Federation of Ethiopia and Eritrea.

Main article: Eritrean War of Independence. Main article: Flag of Eritrea. Main article: Geography of Eritrea. Main article: Wildlife of Eritrea. See also: List of mammals in Eritrea and List of birds of Eritrea.

Main article: Politics of Eritrea. Main article: Elections in Eritrea. Main article: Foreign relations of Eritrea. Further information: Eritrean War of Independence and Eritrean independence referendum, Main articles: Regions of Eritrea and Districts of Eritrea.

Largest cities or towns in Eritrea Geonames. Main article: Transport in Eritrea. Main article: Economy of Eritrea. Main article: Demographics of Eritrea.

Main article: Languages of Eritrea. Main article: Religion in Eritrea. Religion Percent Christianity. The 15th century Sheikh Hanafi Mosque in Massawa.

Villa Roma, Italian embassy. Hotel Albergo Italia, built The hotel is one of the oldest hotels in Asmara. Main article: Human rights in Eritrea.

Main article: Health in Eritrea. Main article: Education in Eritrea. Main article: Culture of Eritrea. See also: Eritrean cuisine. Main article: Music of Eritrea.

See also: Sport in Eritrea. Eritrea portal Africa portal. Archived from the original on 3 May Retrieved 2 May Eritrea Ministry of Information. Retrieved 9 September The World Factbook.

Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 10 June Pew Research Center. Retrieved 13 September UNHRC website.

Retrieved 9 June The minimum age for consensual sex is Penalties for conviction of the commercial sexual exploitation of children include imprisonment.

Crimes were seldom reported, and punishment rarely applied. Data on the extent of child prostitution is not available. UN peacekeeping forces have been involved in the use of under-age prostitutes, some as young as Eritrean adults and children are subjected to sex trafficking abroad, primarily in Sudan , Ethiopia, and Libya.

Some women and girls are subjected to sex trafficking within the country. Some Eritrean women and girls travel to Gulf States for domestic work but are subsequently subjected to sex trafficking.

Smaller numbers of Eritrean women and girls are subjected to sex trafficking in South Sudan , Sudan, and Israel ; reportedly, some Eritrean men are vulnerable to sex trafficking in Israel.

Some Eritrean military and police officers are complicit in trafficking crimes along the border with Sudan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

See also: Human trafficking in Eritrea. Retrieved 7 January March Indian Streams Research Journal;. Archived from the original on 24 March Retrieved 7 May This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.

Historical dictionary of Eritrea 2nd ed. Lanham: Scarecrow Press. Stanford, Calif. Bloomington [u. Bridge - Development - Gender. The Irish Times.

UNDP in Eritrea. Archived from the original on 22 July Retrieved 22 July US Department of state. The Guardian.

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Old problems in new conflicts, some observations on Eritrea and its relations with Tigray, from liberation struggle to inter-state war, in: Africa, vol. The Ethiopia-Eritrea war, in: Boulden, Jane ed. Redeming the failed promise of democracy in Eritrea, in: Live hot and Class, vol. Eritrea and Ethiopia, Negotiations in a transitional conflict, in: Zartman, William ed. Eritrea, in: Bryne, B. Gender, nationalism and revolution: Reassessing Deepest anal insertions relationships with the Blowjob im freibad Liberation Front, Working Penang women no. Rute Gebremedhen. Negotiating masculinity in the reconstrution of social space, Eritrean and Ethiopian refugees in the United States and Sweden, in: Indra, D. Helen ena belaynesh p 27 Sek Latina fucks on the bangbus Porn - ,3k Sichten. Wake up, Hanna! A casee of Deutsche megatitten liberation with feminist undertones, The secession of Eritrea, in: Small Arms and Insurgencies, vol. Rethinking household headship among Eritrean refugees and returnees, in: Development and Hot nude blond teens, vol.

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